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English: I would call my accent modern RP. That is, my pronunciation of words like "officers" and "offices" is identical, with the final syllable the famous or infamous schwa vowel, the "uh" sound. Speakers of older RP are more likely to pronounce
"offices" with a final "i" sound. I also pronounce "because" with a short vowel as in "top" and words like "circumstance" and "transform" with a short "a" as in "bat." Otherwise I pretty much observe the long "a" / short "a" distinction typical of RP.
When American names/idioms come up I prefer to leave them to American speakers, because they will pronounce them differently--same for names from other English-speaking lands. Those guys should go for it.
It is sometimes amusing to try to figure out how one would pronounce a place name true to once's own pronunciation. For example, New York in RP English has that little "y" in "new" and no "R." New Yorkers have their own way of saying New York .... I have to say I have spent and do spend a lot of time in the US --both coasts--and feel a certain pull to put in the word final "r". I resist.
Latin: which Latin are we speaking? There are no native speakers of classical Latin left alive! Gilbert Highet reminds us that we were taught Latin by someone who was taught Latin and so–on back through time to someone who spoke Latin. Thus there exists a continuum for Latin learning, teaching and speaking which will have to suffice.
Victorian and earlier pronunciation has made its way into the schools of medicine and law. These pronunciations have become petrified as recognisable terms and as such will not change, in spite of their peculiar pronunciation, depending on what country you are from.
Medieval Latin and Church Latin again are different. The Italian pronunciation prevails with Anglicisms, Gallicisms and so on thrown in for both versions, though I believe Medieval Latin properly has lots of nasals--think French and Portuguese--and the famous disappearing declensions and conjugations.
Church Latin and any sung Latin typically employs the Italian sound scheme with the /tʃ/ in dulce, and the vowels and diphthongs following Italian. This is also the pronunciation favoured by the Vatican.
We have some ideas as to how ancient Latin was pronounced at least in the classical period--1st century BCE through 1st century CE which is roughly the late Roman republic (Julius Caesar/Sallust through Trajan/Tacitus. Catullus (died c. 54 BCE) makes jokes about Arrius, who hypercorrects, putting "aitches" in front of nouns and adjectives when others normally don't. We also know from transliteration into and from Greek that the C was a K sound, and V or as it was also written U was a "w". Because the Latin name Valeria, for instance, was spelled "oualeria" in Greek, we can tell that Latin V (capital u) was pronounced as a w.
The metre of Latin tells us how much was elided: short vowels and ‘um’ endings disappearing into the next syllable.
The way classical Latin pronunciation is taught now in the US and Britain is very different from the way it used to be, when Horace's "dulce et decorum est” was pronounced with U like duck and the first C as in Italian in the same position, and 7 syllables instead of 5. This method closely follows the work of W. Sidney Allen and his "Vox Latina." This sound scheme is well represented in Forvo as is the more Italianate pronunciation.